To obtain an SSN, the applicant must provide documented proof of citizenship status to the SSA.Footnote 8, The 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) question on citizenship. 2014-02). We treat foreign-born persons with no ITIN or Numident citizenship as having missing AR citizenship, just as we do for persons who cannot be linked to ARs. . This would result in more NRFU fieldwork, more proxy responses, and a lower-quality population count. However, new survey evidence reported by McGeeney et al. In the 2020 Census Barriers, Attitudes, and Motivators Study (CBAMS), 32.5 % of foreign-born survey respondents reported being “extremely concerned” or “very concerned” that the Census Bureau will share their answers with other government agencies, and 34.0 % were “extremely concerned” or “very concerned” that their answers will be used against them. Most important for this study is understanding how the difference in housing unit self-response rate across groups varies between the 2010 census and ACS. This will help determine whether it is useful to compare all-citizen households with those potentially containing at least one noncitizen in our unit (household) self-response analysis. It is also the first to examine item nonresponse and linked survey–administrative record (AR) reporting consistency patterns for citizenship status. First, we conduct the difference-in-differences analysis comparing a problematic response for the citizenship question with that of the age question for the same person of interest, separately for AR citizens and AR noncitizens. Posted by Guillermo Cantor | Mar 28, 2018 | Demographics, Immigration 101, Reform. Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk, U.S. Census Bureau. The impact of privacy and confidentiality concerns on survey participation: The case of the 1990 U.S. census. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/pred/www/rpts/SPAN_SSN.pdf, Camarota, S., & Capizzano, J. Journal of Human Resources, 8, 436–455. Among the reasons for sensitivity, the results are most consistent with confidentiality concerns, which are particularly relevant for unit self-response. (2019). In sum, these results suggest that the very different citizenship question response behavior when asked about AR noncitizens is associated with citizenship question sensitivity, not lack of knowledge, misunderstandings, or record linkage errors. “It would be much more likely to have those things occur in Philadelphia, Chicago or Boston.”. We develop an alternative method for distinguishing self-response effects of sensitive questions when an RCT is unavailable. Of the 11 million or so immigrants living in the country without legal status, most live in cities. Problematic responses could occur for the same reasons for age and citizenship, with the exception that age responses are less likely to be related to citizenship question sensitivity. 2010-G-01). One respondent walked out when the questionnaire turned to the topic of citizenship, leaving the interviewer alone in his apartment. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cen:wpaper:19-18. Because immigrants tend to be concentrated in particular neighborhoodsFootnote 29 and such neighborhoods are more exposed to community outreach encouraging census response (see U.S. Census Bureau 2019),Footnote 30 we also control for the block group–level share of housing units with at least one noncitizen. Assuming that the citizenship question does not affect unit self-response in all-citizen households and applying the 8.0 percentage point drop to the 28.1 % of housing units potentially having at least one noncitizen would predict an overall 2.2 percentage point drop in self-response in the 2020 census, increasing costs and reducing the quality of the population count. 247). This is only part of the total change in unexplained variation between 2010 and 2017. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Downloadable! Would the question affect participation in the census? Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Field representatives reported that foreign-born respondents living in the country illegally or hailing from countries where there is distrust in government were less likely to participate. Person of interest labor market activity could be associated with greater reference person knowledge about the person of interest’s citizenship status because the status may affect the person’s employment eligibility. We find that citizenship question response patterns in the American Community Survey (ACS) suggest that it is a sensitive question when asked about administrative record noncitizens but not when asked about administrative record citizens. (2001) found that SSN item nonresponse was higher for person 2 than for person 1, and for persons 3–6 than for person 2. Article There are several elements to our method for predicting the effect of adding a citizenship question to the 2020 census on housing unit self-response rates. The difference-in-differences in expected self-response rates across the two surveys for the two groups S and U in year t is. Dillman et al. Threat of disclosure (which we refer to as confidentiality concerns) raises fears that the information will be shared with others. (1993) hypothesized that foreign-born persons would have stronger confidentiality concerns due to concerns about immigration laws, their results showed no significant difference in concerns across foreign-born and native-born respondents. (2003). This method was initially developed to study the extent to which the gender or racial wage gaps are due to different distributions of characteristics associated with wages by gender or race (explained variation) versus differing behavior across gender or race for a given set of characteristics (unexplained variation). The U.S. Department of Commerce announced Monday night that a question on citizenship status will be added to the 2020 decennial census questionnaire. In the item nonresponse regressions, Y is equal to 1 if there is no response for the question for person of interest j in group G, and 0 otherwise (even if the response was later edited or allocated). One of the most alarming concerns is that given the current anti-immigrant political climate, including a question on citizenship status may have a negative effect both on the census coverage and response accuracy. PubMed Google Scholar. 0607-0919; ICR Reference No. We use the ACS household roster to define which people are living in the household. (2008). Planned RCTs in the summer of 2019 and in 2020 can do this. Demography Given the openly anti-immigrant agenda advanced by the Trump administration, it is hard not to interpret this as yet another means of intimidating the immigrant community. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. We multiply the coefficients by 100 so that the results are expressed in percentages. Both the ACS and the census are mandatory Title 13 surveys that households are required by law to complete. This, though, was only a 0.5 percent increase, he said, and the bureau already anticipated that “NRFU operations might increase by 3 percent due to numerous factors, including a greater increase in citizen mistrust of government, difficulties in accessing the Internet to respond, and other factors.” (In their amicus brief with the Supreme Court, the four former bureau directors noted an increase in skepticism about government data-collecting prior to 2010.). Each variable is set to 1 if the respondent does not provide a response to the question, the respondent’s answer is edited,Footnote 20 or the answer is inconsistent with ARs; and it is 0 if an answer is provided that is consistent with ARs. We predict the effect on self-response to the entire survey by comparing mail response rates in the 2010 ACS, which included a citizenship question, with those of the 2010 census, which did not have a citizenship question, among households in both surveys. Effects of questionnaire length, respondent-friendly design, and a difficult question on response rates for occupant-addressed census mail surveys. By comparing mail response rates in the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) (which contained the citizenship question) and the 2010 census (which did not) for the same housing units, we predict how adding the citizenship question to the 2020 census questionnaire could affect self-response rates. It mandated, among other things, that jurisdictions covered by the law have new voting laws reviewed by the government to assure that they weren’t discriminatory. The addition of a citizenship question to the 2020 census could affect the self-response rate, a key driver of the cost and quality of a census. The traditional method of relying on the literature to model factors related to observed characteristics that may drive self-response is reported as our main findings. The ACS does not have community outreach programs. Even though Singer et al. Unfortunately, while the Department of Commerce’s communication indicates that the decision to include the citizenship status question was made after considering its potential adverse impacts, it is unclear to what degree this decision followed proper procedures.
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