Prince Heinrich, the commander of the High Seas Fleet, had pressed for such a cruise the previous year, arguing that it would prepare the fleet for overseas operations and break up the monotony of training in German waters, though tensions with Britain over the developing Anglo-German naval arms race were high. , Hessen's armament consisted of a main battery of four 28 cm SK L/40 guns in twin-gun turrets,[b] one fore and one aft of the central superstructure. 13  One tube was in the bow, two were on each broadside, and the final tube was in the stern. , Hessen's keel was laid down on 15 January 1902, at the Germaniawerft shipyard in Kiel under yard number 100. Hessen therefore remained in service with the squadron, the oldest battleship in service with the main fleet. Mauve considered moving his ships to the rear of the line, astern of III Battle Squadron dreadnoughts, but decided against it when he realized the movement would interfere with the maneuvering of Hipper's battlecruisers. Essen (merchant ship) Subscribe to view Essen (Netherlands; 1667) Subscribe to view Essen (of Germany, J. Bruhn, Master, 1,861 tons, from the port of Hamburg to Sydney, New South Wales, 28th February 1897) Subscribe to view J. P. Jorgenssen; noted in directory of 1881), Essen (steamer; noted in directory of 1897), Essen (steamer; noted in directory of 1898), Essen (steamer; noted in directory of 1899), Essen (steamer; noted in directory of 1900), Essen (Steamship, 1889; Hamburg America Line). Her armored belt was 110 to 250 millimeters (4.3 to 9.8 in) thick; the heavier armor in the central portion protected her magazines and propulsion machinery, with thinner plating at either end of the hull. , In February, during the very cold winter of 1911–1912, Hessen was employed as an emergency icebreaker in the Little Belt to rescue ships that were threatened by the heavy ice. The year's autumn maneuvers were confined to the Baltic and the Kattegat. , Hessen took part in the Battle of Jutland on 31 May – 1 June 1916. Both were damaged, but together with "Prinz Eugen" reached German ports in the early hours of the 13th. She cruised off Norway from 15 June to 3 July. Dreadnought's revolutionary design rendered every capital ship of the German navy obsolete, including Hessen and her sister ships. The ship was powered by three 3-cylinder vertical triple expansion engines that drove three screws. J. P. Jorgenssen; noted in directory of 1879), Essen (steamer; Capt. A training cruise into the Baltic followed at the end of the year. [c], At approximately 03:00 on 1 June, a group of British destroyers launched a torpedo attack against the German battle line. Her reciprocating machinery was replaced with steam turbines.  The next year—1909—followed much the same pattern as in 1908. Skirmishes between the rival destroyer screens convinced the German commander, Admiral Friedrich von Ingenohl, that he was confronted with the entire Grand Fleet, and so he broke off the engagement and turned for home. Her deck was 40 mm (1.6 in) thick.  In July 1913, Hessen collided with the torpedo boat G110. Rearmed, she served with the fleet in the 1920s and early 1930s, though she was withdrawn from front-line service in 1934. The following year, she visited Gotland, Oslo, and Danzig, and in 1933 she made another trip to Reval.  Hessen was protected with Krupp armor. The third unit of her class, she was ordered under the contract name "L" as a new unit for the fleet. On 12 December, she was decommissioned and disarmed, after eleven years of service with the fleet. On 26 March, after more Baltic exercises, Hessen was pronounced ready for further offensive operations. J. Bruhn; noted in directory of 1895), Essen (steamer; Capt. Later that year, the fleet toured coastal German cities as part of an effort to increase public support for naval expenditures.  The six ships of II Battle Squadron, having fallen behind, could not conform to the new course following the turn, and fell back to the disengaged side of the German line.  Hessen was among the battleships retained, initially as one of the vessels in reserve. She could steam 4,530 nautical miles (8,390 km; 5,210 mi) at a cruising speed of 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). From 6 to 23 December, she went to Wilhelmshaven for maintenance, which was followed by squadron training in the Baltic from 25 December to 20 January 1916. Accordingly, the fleet was transferred from Kiel to Wilhelmshaven on 1 April 1910. Further exercises followed in May and June, after which the fleet went on a cruise to Norway. The crew of the steamer was rescued and there were no reported injuries; Hessen herself was undamaged in the collision. ; built Cleveland OH, 1892; 334 tons; ON 136285; enrollment certificates), Essen (St.doubleS. Hessen's powerplant was rated at 16,000 metric horsepower (15,781 ihp; 11,768 kW), which generated a top speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). The year 1914 began quietly, with the only event of note being Hessen's visit to Sonderburg on 2 May to participate in the 50th anniversary celebrations commemorating the Battle of Dybbøl of the Second Schleswig War. , Beginning in late 1909, the navy had begun to replace the oldest pre-dreadnought battleships with the more modern dreadnought battleships, starting with the Nassau class. Her secondary armament consisted of fourteen 17 cm (6.7 inch) SK L/40 guns and eighteen 8.8 cm (3.5 in) SK L/35 quick-firing guns. Named after the state of Hesse, the ship was armed with a battery of four 28 cm (11 in) gunsand had a top speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). Visibility was poor, so the operation was quickly called off before the British fleet could intervene and inflict further losses. web applications  In November, the ship took part in unit training in the Kattegat. Hessen and the five ships of the Deutschland class formed II Battle Squadron, under the command of Konteradmiral (KAdm—Rear Admiral) Franz Mauve. ; built Cleveland OH, 1892; 334.76 tons; ON 136285; enrollment certificates), Essen (steamer; Capt. Another cruise into the Atlantic was conducted from 7 July to 1 August, during which Hessen stopped in El Ferrol, Spain.  The first of these was the raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby on 15 December. She performed a variety of roles in the first two years, serving as a guard ship at the mouth of the Elbe, patrolling the Danish straits, and supporting attacks on the British coast, including the raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby in December 1914 and the Bombardment of Yarmouth and Lowestoft in April 1916. During the cruise, Hessen stopped at Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands. The fleet visited Świnoujście, Poland, on 18 and 19 April 1931 before returning to Hamburg.  At 06:55, Hessen and Schlesien mistook a mine buoy dropped by the battleship Kaiser for a periscope and attacked it.  Another fleet review was held during the exercises for a visiting Austro-Hungarian delegation that included Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Admiral Rudolf Montecuccoli. She was decommissioned in December 1916, disarmed and used as a depot ship for the rest of the war. Her crew consisted of 35 officers and 708 enlisted men. In the last daytime action between capital ships on 31 May, Hessen and the other pre-dreadnoughts of II Battle Squadron covered the retreat of the battered German battlecruisers away from the British battlecruiser squadron. , Hessen was in the shipyard in Kiel for maintenance from 22 February 1915 to 6 March, after which she returned to guard duties off Altenbruch, starting on 10 March. She was laid down in 1902, was launched in September 1903, and was commissioned into the German Kaiserliche Marine (Imperial Navy) in September 1905. On 31 May, at 02:00 CET, VAdm Franz von Hipper's battlecruisers of I Scouting Group steamed out towards the Skagerrak, followed by the rest of the High Seas Fleet an hour and a half later. The armament suite was rounded out with six 45 cm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes, all mounted in the hull below the waterline. Named after the state of Hesse, the ship was armed with a battery of four 28 cm (11 in) guns and had a top speed of 18 knots (33 km/h; 21 mph). During the tour, Hessen stopped in numerous ports, including Vigo, Alicante and Cadiz in Spain, Palermo and Syracuse in Sicily, and Venice, Italy. She served in this capacity through World War II, also working as an icebreaker in the Baltic and North Seas. Hessen visited Caramiñal, Vilagarcía, and Ferrol, Spain, during the trip. , The experience at Jutland proved that the pre-dreadnoughts of II Squadron were a hindrance to the more modern units of the fleet, and so the Admiralstab decided that the ships should be withdrawn from service, as their crews could be used more effectively elsewhere. The year was spent conducting squadron and fleet training exercises, including a summer cruise in July and August to Norwegian waters. The battlecruisers of the I Scouting Group attacked the towns in an attempt to lure out part of the British Grand Fleet, while the battleships of the High Seas Fleet waited in support in the hopes of ambushing and destroying any British forces that sortied out. These were in accordance with Holtzendorff's strategy, which envisioned drawing the Royal Navy into the narrow waters in the Kattegat. (0 free), 7 His tenure as fleet commander was marked with strategic experimentation, owing to the increased threat posed by the latest underwater weapons like submarines and naval mines, and to the fact that the new Nassau-class battleships were too wide to pass through the Kaiser Wilhelm Canal. During the night of 15–16 December, the German battle fleet of twelve dreadnoughts and eight pre-dreadnoughts came to within 10 nmi (19 km; 12 mi) of an isolated squadron of six British battleships. Vice Admiral David Beatty's battlecruisers had attacked the German ships in the darkness, which had turned westward to evade their attackers, and Mauve had continued in a southerly course, which placed his ships between the British and German battlecruisers. The annual summer cruise for 1913 returned to Norwegian waters, as did the cruise the following year. J. P. Jorgensen; noted in directory of 1879), Essen (steamer; Capt.  Hessen relieved Preussen in the straits on 4 May, remaining there until the 20th. Four torpedo tubes were installed in above-water casemates in the main deck. The torpedo is believed to have detonated one of the ship's 17 cm (6.7 in) shell magazines, destroying the ship.  She and her control ship, the ex-destroyer Blitz, were ceded to the Soviet Union on 2 January 1946 in Wilhelmshaven.  As part of this process, Hessen was scheduled to be withdrawn into the reserve on 26 August 1914, with her place in II Squadron taken by the new dreadnought König, but the rising tensions in Europe during the July Crisis, which led to the outbreak of World War I, interrupted that plan. She displaced 13,208 t (12,999 long tons) as designed and 14,394 t (14,167 long tons) at Full load.  Hessen was the II Squadron winner of the Kaiser's Schießpreis (Shooting Prize) for excellent shooting; at the time, her gunnery officer was then-Kapitänleutnant (Captain Lieutenant) Adolf von Trotha.
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