east timor genocide


[163] Several pro-democracy student groups and their magazines began to openly and critically discuss not just East Timor, but also the "New Order" and the broader history and future of Indonesia. [94] In early 1978, the entire civilian population of Arsaibai village, near the Indonesian border, was killed for supporting Fretilin after being bombarded and starved. [44] In mid-November, Indonesian forces began shelling the city of Atabae from the sea and captured it by the end of the month.[45]. Dunn, pp. [237], The Indian government also supported Indonesia, likening the occupation to its own seizure of Goa in 1961. The capable Timorese President and military commander, Nicolau Lobato, was shot and killed by helicopter-borne Indonesian troops on 31 December 1978. [238] Some analysts remarked that Indonesia's delayed action also prevented a peaceful transfer of East Timor to it, similar to how the French transferred Pondicherry to India in 1962. Dunn, p. 84; Budiardjo and Liong (1984), p. 6. In late 1989, hardline military commander Brigadier General Mulyadi was replaced by Brigadier General Rudolph Warouw who promised a more "persuasive" approach to anti-integrationists. Aditjondro, George. Nicolau dos Reis Lobato † In addition to Fretilin supporters, Chinese migrants were also singled out for execution; five hundred were killed in the first day alone. Nino Konis Santana † Despite improvements since 1976, a 1993 Indonesian government report estimated that in three-quarters of East Timor's 61 districts, more than half lived in poverty. 85–88; Budiardjo and Liong (1984), pp. "[18], In 1974, a coup in Lisbon caused significant changes in Portugal's relationship to its colony in Timor. [70] Later, Indonesian Foreign Minister Ali Alatas reiterated this position in his 2006 memoir The Pebble in the Shoe: The Diplomatic Struggle for East Timor. [95] The success of the 'encirclement and annihilation' campaign led to the 'final cleansing campaign', in which children and men would be forced to hold hands and march in front of Indonesian units searching for Fretilin members. "Prospects for development in East Timor after the capture of Xanana Gusmão". [14] A significant battleground during the Pacific War, East Timor was occupied by 20,000 Japanese troops. However, with the widespread support from various countries, the Philippines finally changed its policy. "It is worth recalling that hundreds of thousands of East Timorese disappeared during the violence of September 1999, only to reappear later," he writes. [11][12], The Portuguese first arrived in Timor in the 16th century, and in 1702 East Timor came under Portuguese colonial administration. [217] Kiernan believes that the deficit was most probably around 145,000 when accounting for the reduction in birth rates, or 20% of East Timor's population. Portuguese clergy were replaced with Indonesian priests, and Latin and Portuguese mass were replaced by Indonesian mass. [187] Brought up on the "New Order"'s insistence that the East Timorese supported integration, Indonesians were either shocked by or disbelieved that the East Timorese had voted against being part of Indonesia. 62–63. After a small-scale civil war, FRETILIN, pro-independence, claims victory in the capital Dili and declares independent Timor-Leste on November 28, 1975. Jolliffe, p. 289; Taylor (1990), p. 9; Dunn (1996), p. 264; Budiardjo and Liong (1984), p. 96. Suspected Fretilin sympathisers were arrested, human rights abuses rose, and the ban on foreign journalists was reimposed. On 28 November 1975, Fretilin unilaterally declared independence for the Democratic Republic of East Timor. Alleging pro-independence bias on the part of UNAMET, the groups were seen working with and receiving training from Indonesian soldiers. [43], At the start of November, the foreign ministers from Indonesia and Portugal met in Rome to discuss a resolution of the conflict. [144] Indonesian entrepreneurs came to dominate non-Denok/military enterprises, and local manufactures from the Portuguese period made way for Indonesian imports. [134] Before the invasion, only 20% of East Timorese were Roman Catholics, and by the 1980s, 95% were registered as Catholics. [140], Following the invasion, Portuguese commercial interests were taken over by Indonesians. 167–179 and 201–207; Indonesia (1977), p. 32; Taylor (1991), pp. [21] A week later, the Frente Revolucionária de Timor-Leste Independente (Revolutionary Front for an Independent East Timor, or Fretilin) appeared.  United Kingdom (until 1991, support with weapons until 1997), Supported by: [93] 35,000 ABRI troops surrounded areas of Fretilin support and killed men, women, and children. Britain abstained from all of the UN General Assembly resolutions relating to East Timor and sold arms throughout the occupation. Other forms of birth control consisted of killing newborn children of women who were suspected of being associated with the Fretilin. [195] In late 1998, Prime Minister John Howard and Foreign Minister Alexander Downer drafted a letter to Indonesia setting out a change in Australian policy, suggesting that East Timor be given a chance to vote on independence within a decade. "Radio Maubere and Links to East Timor". [137] 662 transmigrant families (2,208 people) settled in East Timor in 1993,[138] whereas an estimated 150,000 free Indonesian settlers lived in East Timor by the mid-1990s, including those offered jobs in education and administration.  Russia (1991–1999) Budiardjo and Liong (1984), p. 6; Taylor (1991), p. 53; Jolliffe, p. 150; Dunn, p. 160; Jardine, p. 29. A delegation of Indonesian relief workers agreed with this statistic. The meeting ended with both parties agreeing that Portugal would meet with political leaders in East Timor, but the talks never took place. This placed restrictions on the caretaker government of Fraser. Immediately after the invasion, the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council passed resolutions condemning Indonesia's actions in East Timor and calling for its immediate withdrawal from the territory. [255], Saul goes on to discuss prosecutions of responsible parties for "crimes against humanity, war crimes, and other gross violations of human rights". "[253] The occupation has been compared to the killings of the Khmer Rouge, the Yugoslav wars, and the Rwandan genocide. [126], Those suspected of opposing integration were often arrested and tortured. For twenty-five years the population of East Timor has been subjected to extrajudicial executions, torture, and famine. Many of those conscripted into the "fence of legs" died of starvation, exhaustion or were shot by Indonesian forces for allowing guerillas to slip through. Noting the relative lack of personal accounts of atrocities or of traumatised Indonesian soldiers, he further adds that East Timor "does not appear—on the basis of news reports and academic accounts—to be a society traumatized by mass death...the circumstance leading up to the Dili massacre of 1991...indicate a society which retained its vigour and indignation in a way which would probably not have been possible if it had been treated as Cambodia was treated under Pol Pot."

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