black reconstruction era

This political uprising ushered in the period of Congressional or Radical Reconstruction. His address — delivered as part of a celebration of Du Bois on what would have been his one-hundredth birthday — focused on the contributions of this “intellectual giant” and his efforts to “teach us something about our tasks of emancipation.”. Many historians define Black Reconstruction as spanning the years from 1863 (the year of the Emancipation Proclamation, which made possible widespread black military participation in the Civil War) through 1877 (the year of the national political agreement to remove federal troops from the South). Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Seward spent his early career as a lawyer before winning a seat in the New York State Senate in 1830. And he reminded readers that history is about interpretation of the past — interpretation often tied to events in the present. The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments were unenforced but remained on the books, forming the basis of the mid-20th-century civil rights movement. In the face of such violence, both Galloway and Campbell helped form black militias that provided some level of protection against white terrorism. In 1871 the administration launched a legal and military offensive that destroyed the Klan. The foundations built during Reconstruction—foundations in black education, black churches, and black political and community organizations—would continue to provide support to African Americans in the South throughout the long years of Jim Crow. With the support of congressional legislation and federal troops, many Southern states were required to implement African-American suffrage in their reconstructed legislatures and state constitutional conventions. But it also hindered the broader labor movement: “Labor went into the great war of 1877 against Northern capitalists unsupported by the black man, and the black man went his way in the South to strengthen and consolidate his power, unsupported by Northern labor.” In scholarship that would inspire later historians like Eric Foner, Heather Cox Richardson, and Lerone Bennett, Du Bois made it clear that the Reconstruction of the South, and the labor movement of the North, were far more linked than most historians wanted to admit in the 1930s. The Civil Rights Act became the first significant legislation in American history to become law over a president’s veto. If the Third Reconstruction does not succeed — if, like the previous two, it is destroyed by an elite backlash, severe repression, and political demobilization — we may not have a chance at a fourth one. Many people from the North  became convinced that Johnson's policy, and the actions of the governments he established, threatened to reduce African Americans to a condition similar to slavery, while allowing former "rebels" to regain political power in the South. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. By the mid-1870s, however, extremist forces—such as the Ku Klux Klan —succeeded in restoring many aspects of white supremacy in the South. An economic depression from 1873 to 1879 saw much of the South fell into poverty, allowing the Democratic Party to win back control of the House of Representatives and heralding the end Reconstruction.

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