At the time, Europeans were asking some fundamental questions like: How do we explain difference? Lumpers have classified races by large geographic tracts (often continents) and produced a small number of broad, general racial categories, as reflected in Linnaeus’s original classification scheme and later three-race theories. Ancestry refers to the evolutionary or genetic line of descent that an individual belongs to. The nature of social and cultural life varies significantly with the setting in which it occurs. For example, the Hamitic Myth (a creation story about the origin of Hamitic peoples) asserted that Ham (one of Noah’s sons) was the ancestor of some African populations. Snyder was fired from CBS shortly after amid a tidal wave of controversy and furor. Explains sickle cell patterns (Lavenda and Schultz, 63) Burakumin earn only about 60 percent of the national average household income.31 Stereotypes of the burakumin as unintelligent, lazy, and violent still exist, but burakumin men account for a significant portion of Japan’s professional athletes in popular sports such as baseball and sumo wrestling, an interesting pattern that reflects events in the United States, where racially stigmatized groups have long found relatively abundant opportunities for upward mobility in professional sports. Symbolic ethnicity is pervasive in U.S. society; consider customs such as “Kiss Me, I’m Irish!” buttons and bumper stickers, Puerto Rican flag necklaces, decals of the Virgin of Guadalupe, replicas of the Aztec stone calendar, and tattoos of Celtic crosses or of the map of Italy in green, white, and red stripes. Belgian colonialists believed that the Tutsi of Rwanda belonged to a sub-group of Caucasians. In some states, laws by fraction 3 (1998): 632-650. In a similar vein, former CBS sportscaster Jimmy “The Greek” Snyder claimed, on the eve of Super Bowl XXII in 1988, that African Americans comprised the majority of NFL players because they were “bred that way” during slavery as a form of selective breeding between bigger and stronger slaves much like had been done with racehorses. Nanda, Serena. Who is Boas and what is his contribution? Nevertheless, race and ethnicity—as social constructs—continue to be used as criteria for prejudice, discrimination, exclusion, and stereotypes well into the twenty-first century. Thus, human skin color cannot be used as a definitive marker of racial boundaries. Hartigan reveals that social class has played a major role in shaping strikingly different identities among these “white” residents and how, accordingly, social relations between “whites” and “blacks” in the neighborhoods vary from camaraderie and companionship to conflict. Ethnic groups become equated with minority groups who have less power and prestige then the majority group. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004. Depends on context of remains In other words, different countries have different racial categories, and different ways of classifying their citizens into these categories.2 At the same time, significant genetic studies conducted by physical anthropologists since the 1970s have revealed that biologically distinct human races do not exist.
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